Welding robots are the most widely used in the field of robot applications. As an advanced welding equipment, welding robots have greatly promoted the development of automated production. Especially in harsh welding environments, welding robots can replace manual labor, meet the requirements of automated production, improve product quality, reduce production costs, improve production efficiency, and so on. Their advantages in automated production lines can be summarized as follows:
Stabilize and improve welding quality to ensure its uniformity. Welding parameters such as welding current, voltage, welding speed, and dry elongation have a decisive effect on the welding results. When using robot welding, the welding parameters of each weld are constant, and the weld quality is less affected by human factors, reducing the requirements for worker operation technology, so the welding quality is stable. During manual welding, the welding speed and dry elongation are variable, making it difficult to achieve quality uniformity.
Improved working conditions. Using robot welding, workers only need to load and unload the workpiece, away from welding arc light, intense fog, and spatter. For spot welding, workers do not need to carry heavy manual welding tongs, freeing them from high intensity manual labor.
Improve labor productivity. Robots can be continuously produced for 24 hours. With the application of high-speed and efficient welding technology, the efficiency of robot welding has been significantly improved.
Clear product cycle, easy to control product output. The production rhythm of the robot is fixed, so the production plan is very clear.
Shorten the cycle of product upgrading and reduce the corresponding equipment investment. It can realize welding automation of small batch products. The biggest difference between robots and specialized machines is that they can adapt their programs to different workpiece production.
Changes in the environment and conditions during the actual welding process are inevitable, such as the dispersion of joint positions, weld gaps, and dimensions caused by welding workpiece processing and assembly errors, the difference between the teaching trajectory and the actual weld, thermal deformation, penetration, and unstable weld formation during the welding process, which can cause fluctuations in welding quality and lead to welding defects.
In order to overcome the impact of various uncertain factors on precision welding quality during the welding process, it is necessary to adopt technologies such as information feedback and intelligent control to improve the adaptability or intelligence level of current welding robots, so as to enable them to achieve initial welding position recognition and autonomous guidance, real-time weld deviation correction and tracking, acquisition of dynamic feature information of the welding pool, adaptive adjustment of process parameters, and real-time control of weld formation, That is, to achieve autonomous and intelligent control of the robot welding process, thereby making up for the shortcomings of welding robots in automatic welding.
A fuzzy expert control system is designed to solve the problems of strong heat accumulation in the welding process of aluminum alloys and various defects easily generated during constant parameter welding. The image of the weld pool is obtained through CCD and the corresponding image processing software calculates the size of the weld width. Then, the fuzzy controller controls the welding heat input, and the expert system is responsible for pulse parameter matching to maintain the weld width unchanged, which ensures the stability of the welding quality and is suitable for automated production requirements.
In on-site construction such as steel structures, structural components have complex shapes. In addition to conventional circular and square workpieces, there are also discontinuous, elliptical, and tapered workpieces, as well as thick wall and large workpieces. To maximize the automation of on-site welding, fully utilize the on-site construction utilization of welding robots, and improve welding efficiency, straight rails, circular rails Flexible guide rails realize all position welding of various complex curved surfaces, which can adapt to track tracking of irregular welds, and realize automatic welding of multi-layer multi-pass welding and all position welding.