手机官网

微信客服

Copyright©山东红宝自动化有限公司 版权所有     网站地图XML      鲁ICP备16022612号-1       

关注我们

服务热线:

0531-8815 6666、8915 8888

红宝

工业机器人的组成结构系统和发展趋势分析!

浏览量

  工业机器人具有一定的自动性,能够依靠自身的动力能源和控制能力实现各种工业加工制造功能,广泛用于工业领域的多关节机械手或多自由度的机器装置。工业机器人被广泛应用于电子、物流、化工等各个工业领域。
  Industrial robots have a certain degree of automaticity. They can realize various industrial processing and manufacturing functions by relying on their own power and control capabilities. They are widely used in the industrial field of multi joint manipulators or multi degree of freedom machine devices. Industrial robots are widely used in electronic, logistics, chemical and other industrial fields.


  工业机器人的组成
  Composition of industrial robots
  一般来说,工业机器人由三大部分六个子系统组成。三大部分是机械部分、传感部分和控制部分;六个子系统可分为机械结构系统、驱动系统、感知系统、机器人-环境交互系统、人机交互系统和控制系统。
  Generally speaking, industrial robots are composed of three major parts and six subsystems. The third part is mechanical part, sensing part and control part; The six subsystems can be divided into mechanical structure system, drive system, perception system, robot environment interaction system, human-computer interaction system and control system.
  1.机械结构系统
  Mechanical structure system
  从机械结构来看,工业机器人总体上分为串联机器人和并联机器人。串联机器人的特点是一个轴的运动会改变另一个轴的坐标原点,而并联机器人一个轴运动则不会改变另一个轴的坐标原点。
  In terms of mechanical structure, industrial robots are generally divided into series robots and parallel robots. The characteristic of the serial robot is that the motion of one axis will change the coordinate origin of the other axis, while the motion of one axis of the parallel robot will not change the coordinate origin of the other axis.
  2.驱动系统
  Drive system
  驱动系统是向机械结构系统提供动力的装置。根据动力源不同,驱动系统的传动方式分为液压式、气压式、电气式和机械式4种。早期的工业机器人采用液压驱动。由于液压系统存在泄露、噪声和低速不稳定等问题,并且功率单元笨重和昂贵,目前只有大型重载机器人、并联加工机器人和一些特殊应用场合使用液压驱动的工业机器人。
  The drive system is a device that provides power to the mechanical structure system. According to different power sources, the drive system can be divided into four types: hydraulic, pneumatic, electrical and mechanical. Early industrial robots were driven by hydraulic pressure. Due to the problems of leakage, noise and low speed instability in the hydraulic system, and the cumbersome and expensive power units, there are only large heavy-duty robots, parallel processing robots and industrial robots driven by hydraulic power in some special applications.
  3.感知系统
  Perception system
  机器人感知系统把机器人各种内部状态信息和环境信息从信号转变为机器人自身或者机器人之间能够理解和应用的数据和信息,除了需要感知与自身工作状态相关的机械量,如位移、速度和力等,视觉感知技术是工业机器人感知的一个重要方面。视觉伺服系统将视觉信息作为反馈信号,用于控制调整机器人的位置和姿态。
  The robot perception system transforms various internal state information and environmental information of the robot from signals to data and information that can be understood and applied by the robot itself or among robots. In addition to sensing the mechanical quantities related to its own working state, such as displacement, speed and force, visual perception technology is an important aspect of industrial robot perception. The visual servo system uses visual information as feedback signals to control and adjust the position and posture of the robot.
  4. 机器人-环境交互系统
  Robot environment interaction system
  机器人-环境交互系统是实现机器人与外部环境中的设备相互联系和协调的系统。机器人与外部设备集成为一个功能单元,如加工制造单元、焊接单元、装配单元等。当然也可以是多台机器人集成为一个去执行复杂任务的功能单元。
  The robot environment interaction system is a system that realizes the interconnection and coordination between robots and equipment in the external environment. The robot and external equipment are integrated into a functional unit, such as processing and manufacturing unit, welding unit, assembly unit, etc. Of course, multiple robots can also be integrated into a functional unit to perform complex tasks.
  5.人机交互系统
  Human computer interaction system
  人机交互系统是人与机器人进行联系和参与机器人控制的装置。例如:计算机的标准终端、指令控制台、信息显示板、危险信号报警器等。
  Human computer interaction system is a device for people to connect with robots and participate in robot control. For example: standard terminal of computer, instruction console, information display board, danger signal alarm, etc.
  6.控制系统
  Control system
  控制系统的任务是根据机器人的作业指令以及从传感器反馈回来的信号,支配机器人的执行机构去完成规定的运动和功能。如果机器人不具备信息反馈特征,则为开环控制系统;具备信息反馈特征,则为闭环控制系统。
  The task of the control system is to control the executive mechanism of the robot to complete the specified movement and function according to the robot's work instructions and the signals fed back from the sensors. If the robot does not have the characteristics of information feedback, it is an open loop control system; If it has the characteristics of information feedback, it is a closed loop control system.
  工业机器人的发展趋势
  Development Trend of Industrial Robots
  1.人机协作
  Man machine cooperation
  随着机器人从与人保持距离作业向与人自然交互并协同作业方面发展。拖动示教、人工教学技术的成熟,使得编程更简单易用,降低了对操作人员的专业要求,熟练技工的工艺经验更容易传递。
  With the development of robots from distance operation to natural interaction and collaborative operation with people. The maturity of drag teaching and manual teaching technology makes programming easier to use, reduces the professional requirements for operators, and makes the process experience of skilled technicians easier to transfer.
  2.自主化
  Autonomy
  目前机器人从预编程、示教再现控制、直接控制、遥操作等被操纵作业模式向自主学习、自主作业方向发展。智能化机器人可根据工况或环境需求,自动设定和优化轨迹路径、自动避开奇异点、进行干涉与碰撞的预判并避障等。
  At present, robots have developed from pre programming, teaching and playback control, direct control, teleoperation and other manipulated operation modes to autonomous learning and autonomous operation. The intelligent robot can automatically set and optimize the path, avoid singular points, predict interference and collision, and avoid obstacles according to the working conditions or environmental requirements.
  3.智能化、信息化、网络化
  Intelligence, informatization and networking
  越来越多的3D视觉、力传感器会使用到机器人上,机器人将会变得越来越智能化。随着传感与识别系统、人工智能等技术进步,机器人从被单向控制向自己存储、自己应用数据方向发展,逐渐信息化。随着多机器人协同、控制、通信等技术进步,机器人从独立个体向相互联网、协同合作方向发展。
  More and more 3D vision and force sensors will be used on robots, and robots will become more and more intelligent. With the progress of sensing and recognition systems, artificial intelligence and other technologies, robots have developed from one-way control to self storage and self application of data, and gradually become information-based. With the technological progress of multi robot cooperation, control, communication and other technologies, robots have developed from independent individuals to the direction of Internet and collaborative cooperation.