Industrial robots have a certain degree of automaticity. They can realize various industrial processing and manufacturing functions by relying on their own power and control capabilities. They are widely used in the industrial field of multi joint manipulators or multi degree of freedom machine devices. Industrial robots are widely used in electronic, logistics, chemical and other industrial fields.
Composition of industrial robots
Generally speaking, industrial robots are composed of three major parts and six subsystems. The third part is mechanical part, sensing part and control part; The six subsystems can be divided into mechanical structure system, drive system, perception system, robot environment interaction system, human-computer interaction system and control system.
Mechanical structure system
In terms of mechanical structure, industrial robots are generally divided into series robots and parallel robots. The characteristic of the serial robot is that the motion of one axis will change the coordinate origin of the other axis, while the motion of one axis of the parallel robot will not change the coordinate origin of the other axis.
The drive system is a device that provides power to the mechanical structure system. According to different power sources, the drive system can be divided into four types: hydraulic, pneumatic, electrical and mechanical. Early industrial robots were driven by hydraulic pressure. Due to the problems of leakage, noise and low speed instability in the hydraulic system, and the cumbersome and expensive power units, there are only large heavy-duty robots, parallel processing robots and industrial robots driven by hydraulic power in some special applications.
The robot perception system transforms various internal state information and environmental information of the robot from signals to data and information that can be understood and applied by the robot itself or among robots. In addition to sensing the mechanical quantities related to its own working state, such as displacement, speed and force, visual perception technology is an important aspect of industrial robot perception. The visual servo system uses visual information as feedback signals to control and adjust the position and posture of the robot.
Robot environment interaction system
The robot environment interaction system is a system that realizes the interconnection and coordination between robots and equipment in the external environment. The robot and external equipment are integrated into a functional unit, such as processing and manufacturing unit, welding unit, assembly unit, etc. Of course, multiple robots can also be integrated into a functional unit to perform complex tasks.
Human computer interaction system
Human computer interaction system is a device for people to connect with robots and participate in robot control. For example: standard terminal of computer, instruction console, information display board, danger signal alarm, etc.
The task of the control system is to control the executive mechanism of the robot to complete the specified movement and function according to the robot's work instructions and the signals fed back from the sensors. If the robot does not have the characteristics of information feedback, it is an open loop control system; If it has the characteristics of information feedback, it is a closed loop control system.
Development Trend of Industrial Robots
Man machine cooperation
With the development of robots from distance operation to natural interaction and collaborative operation with people. The maturity of drag teaching and manual teaching technology makes programming easier to use, reduces the professional requirements for operators, and makes the process experience of skilled technicians easier to transfer.
At present, robots have developed from pre programming, teaching and playback control, direct control, teleoperation and other manipulated operation modes to autonomous learning and autonomous operation. The intelligent robot can automatically set and optimize the path, avoid singular points, predict interference and collision, and avoid obstacles according to the working conditions or environmental requirements.
Intelligence, informatization and networking
More and more 3D vision and force sensors will be used on robots, and robots will become more and more intelligent. With the progress of sensing and recognition systems, artificial intelligence and other technologies, robots have developed from one-way control to self storage and self application of data, and gradually become information-based. With the technological progress of multi robot cooperation, control, communication and other technologies, robots have developed from independent individuals to the direction of Internet and collaborative cooperation.