The automatic assembly line is the main link in the production process of the automatic assembly line. The structure of the production line mainly includes: conveying system; various separation, stop and reversing mechanisms; various automatic loading and unloading devices; various automatic assembly machines; sensors and control system.
Conveying system of automatic assembly line
The conveying system usually adopts various conveying lines. On the one hand, its function is to automatically transport workpieces, on the other hand, it connects various automatic assembly machines into a coordinated operation system. The conveying system is usually operated continuously. The most typical conveyor lines, such as: belt conveyor line; flat top chain conveyor line, etc.
Usually, the conveyor line is designed as a straight line, and various automatic assembly machines are directly placed above the conveyor line. The special automatic machine and conveying line are designed and manufactured on the basis of various aluminum profiles. After debugging, the special automatic machine is connected with the conveying line through special connectors to make them become a whole.
Automatic assembly line of various material distribution, stop and reversing mechanism
Since the workpieces are assembled one by one according to the order of the special machines until all the assembly procedures are completed, usually in front of each special machine on the conveying line, a material distribution mechanism is designed in front of each special machine to separate the continuously arranged workpieces, and then set various stop mechanisms to form the temporary storage position of the workpieces required by each special machine. After the workpiece reaches the temporary stop position, the manipulator on the special machine grabs the workpiece from this position and puts it into the positioning fixture after being confirmed by the sensor, and then carries out the assembly process operation. Finally, the manipulator on the machine grabs the workpiece from this position and then sends it back to the conveying line to continue conveying to the next special machine.
When it is necessary to change the attitude of the workpiece, it is necessary to set up a suitable reversing mechanism, and then carry out the process operation after changing the attitude direction of the workpiece.
Various automatic loading and unloading devices for automatic assembly line
As the main assembly process is completed by various automatic assembly machines, all kinds of automatic assembly machines naturally need their own automatic loading and unloading devices, and the most widely used are vibration plate and manipulator. The vibrating plate is used to automatically transport small parts, such as screws, nuts, rivets, small stamping parts, small injection molding parts, small die castings, etc., while the manipulator can grasp a wider range of objects, not only can grasp very small parts, but also can grasp parts with certain size and weight.
In order to simplify the structure, the automatic loading and unloading manipulator is usually directly designed as a part of the special machine in the design of automatic special machine, and the normal loading and unloading operation only needs two directions of movement. Therefore, this manipulator uses the matching linear guide mechanism and cylinder to form a linear motion system in two directions, up and down, horizontal. The end of the upper and lower motion arm is assumed to be suction cup or pneumatic finger.
Automatic assembly line various automatic assembly machines
Various automatic assembly machines include automatic loading and unloading device, positioning fixture, assembly execution structure, sensor and control system. The positioning fixture is designed according to the shape and size of the specific workpiece, and the assembly actuator is specially designed according to the process to be completed, and a large number of components such as linear guide mechanism, linear bearing and ball screw mechanism are used. Usually, the processes completed on this kind of automatic assembly machine are as follows:
Automatic bonding, parts insertion, semiconductor surface mounting, various screws and nuts connection, riveting, adjustment, detection, marking, packaging, etc. In addition to the assembly process, some simple machining processes can also be used in this automatic assembly line.
Sensor assembly line control system and automation
Each special machine must have corresponding sensors and control system to complete its own assembly operation cycle. In addition, in order to make the assembly cycle of each special machine form a coordinated system, various sensors must be set on the conveyor line to detect and confirm the position of the workpiece. For example, when the workpiece does exist and the control system needs to release the workpiece, the material mechanism starts to move, the temporary position of the workpiece does have a workpiece, and the control system needs the manipulator to grab the workpiece for loading, and the manipulator starts to take the material, etc.
Usually, when the next special machine has finished the operation of the next special machine, it has to wait for the completion of the next process The process is very similar.
In order to maximize the use of space, sometimes the automatic assembly line can also use a ring form. Because the flat top chain conveyor line can turn freely, it is very suitable as the conveying system of this kind of circular production line.