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详解自动化装配生产线的每一个工作流程

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  自动化装配生产线是自动化流水线生产流程中主要的环节,生产线在结构上主要包括:输送系统;各种分料、挡停及换向机构;各种自动上下料装置;各种自动化装配专机;传感器与控制系统。
  The automatic assembly line is the main link in the production process of the automatic assembly line. The structure of the production line mainly includes: conveying system; various separation, stop and reversing mechanisms; various automatic loading and unloading devices; various automatic assembly machines; sensors and control system.
  一、自动化装配生产线输送系统
  Conveying system of automatic assembly line
  输送系统通常采用各种输送线,其作用一方面为自动输送工件,另一方面为将各种自动化装配专机连接成一个协调运行的系统。输送系统通常都采用连续运行的方式。最典型的输送线如:皮带输送线;平顶链输送线等。
  The conveying system usually adopts various conveying lines. On the one hand, its function is to automatically transport workpieces, on the other hand, it connects various automatic assembly machines into a coordinated operation system. The conveying system is usually operated continuously. The most typical conveyor lines, such as: belt conveyor line; flat top chain conveyor line, etc.
  通常将输送线设计为直行形式,各种自动化装配专机直接放置在输送线的上方。自动化专机及输送线都是在各种铝型材的基础上设计制造出来的,经过调试后,通过专用的连接件将自动化专机与输送线连接固定,使它们成为一个整体。
  Usually, the conveyor line is designed as a straight line, and various automatic assembly machines are directly placed above the conveyor line. The special automatic machine and conveying line are designed and manufactured on the basis of various aluminum profiles. After debugging, the special automatic machine is connected with the conveying line through special connectors to make them become a whole.
自动化装配
  二、自动化装配生产线各种分料、挡停及换向机构
  Automatic assembly line of various material distribution, stop and reversing mechanism
  由于工件是按专机排列次序经过逐台专机的装配直至最后完成全部装配工序的,通常在输送线上每一台专机的前方都先设计有分料机构,将连续排列的工件分隔开,然后再设置各种挡停机构,组成各专机所需要的工件暂存位置。工件到达该挡停暂存位置后,经过传感器确认后专机上的机械手从该位置抓取工件放入定位夹具,然后进行装配工艺操作。最后由换机上的机械手从该位置抓取工件又送回输送线继续向下一台专机输送。
  Since the workpieces are assembled one by one according to the order of the special machines until all the assembly procedures are completed, usually in front of each special machine on the conveying line, a material distribution mechanism is designed in front of each special machine to separate the continuously arranged workpieces, and then set various stop mechanisms to form the temporary storage position of the workpieces required by each special machine. After the workpiece reaches the temporary stop position, the manipulator on the special machine grabs the workpiece from this position and puts it into the positioning fixture after being confirmed by the sensor, and then carries out the assembly process operation. Finally, the manipulator on the machine grabs the workpiece from this position and then sends it back to the conveying line to continue conveying to the next special machine.
  在需要改变工件的姿态时,就需要设置合适的换向机构,改变工件的姿态方向后再进行工序操作。
  When it is necessary to change the attitude of the workpiece, it is necessary to set up a suitable reversing mechanism, and then carry out the process operation after changing the attitude direction of the workpiece.
  三、自动化装配生产线各种自动上下料装置
  Various automatic loading and unloading devices for automatic assembly line
  由于主要的装配工序都是由各种自动化装配专机完成的,各种自动化装配专机自然也相应需要各自的自动上下料装置,应用最多的就是振盘及机械手。振盘用于自动输送小型零件,如螺钉、螺母、铆钉、小型冲压件、小型注塑件、小型压铸件等,而机械手抓取的对象更广,既可以抓取很微小的零件,也可以抓取具有一定尺寸和重量的零件。
  As the main assembly process is completed by various automatic assembly machines, all kinds of automatic assembly machines naturally need their own automatic loading and unloading devices, and the most widely used are vibration plate and manipulator. The vibrating plate is used to automatically transport small parts, such as screws, nuts, rivets, small stamping parts, small injection molding parts, small die castings, etc., while the manipulator can grasp a wider range of objects, not only can grasp very small parts, but also can grasp parts with certain size and weight.
  为了简化结构,在自动化专机的设计中,通常将自动上下料机械手直接设计成专机的一部分,而且通常的上下料操作只需要两个方向的运动即可实现。所以这种机械手采用配套的直线导轨机构与气缸组成上下、水平两个方向的直线运动系统,在上下运动手臂的末端假设吸盘或气动手指即可。
  In order to simplify the structure, the automatic loading and unloading manipulator is usually directly designed as a part of the special machine in the design of automatic special machine, and the normal loading and unloading operation only needs two directions of movement. Therefore, this manipulator uses the matching linear guide mechanism and cylinder to form a linear motion system in two directions, up and down, horizontal. The end of the upper and lower motion arm is assumed to be suction cup or pneumatic finger.
  四、自动化装配生产线各种自动化装配专机
  Automatic assembly line various automatic assembly machines
  各种自动化装配专机包括自动上下料装置、定位夹具、装配执行结构、传感器与控制系统等,其中定位夹具根据具体工件的形状尺寸来设计,装配执行机构则随需要完成的工序专门设计,而且大量采用直线导轨机构、直线轴承、滚珠丝杠机构等部件。通常在这类自动化装配专机上完成的工序有:
  Various automatic assembly machines include automatic loading and unloading device, positioning fixture, assembly execution structure, sensor and control system. The positioning fixture is designed according to the shape and size of the specific workpiece, and the assembly actuator is specially designed according to the process to be completed, and a large number of components such as linear guide mechanism, linear bearing and ball screw mechanism are used. Usually, the processes completed on this kind of automatic assembly machine are as follows:
  自动粘结、零件的插入、半导体表面贴装、各种螺钉螺母连接、铆接、调整、检测、标示、包装等。除装配工序外,在这种自动化装配生产线上也可以采用部分简单的机械加工工序。
  Automatic bonding, parts insertion, semiconductor surface mounting, various screws and nuts connection, riveting, adjustment, detection, marking, packaging, etc. In addition to the assembly process, some simple machining processes can also be used in this automatic assembly line.
  五、自动化装配生产线传感器与控制系统
  Sensor assembly line control system and automation
  每台专机完成各自的装配操作循环,必须具有相应的传感器与控制系统,除此之外,为了使各台专机的装配循环组成一个协调的系统,在输送线上还必须设置各种对工件位置进行检测确认的传感器。例如工件确实存在而且控制系统需要放行工件时分料机构才开始动作、工件暂存位置确实有工件而且控制系统需要机械手抓取工件进行上料时机械手才开始取料,等等。
  Each special machine must have corresponding sensors and control system to complete its own assembly operation cycle. In addition, in order to make the assembly cycle of each special machine form a coordinated system, various sensors must be set on the conveyor line to detect and confirm the position of the workpiece. For example, when the workpiece does exist and the control system needs to release the workpiece, the material mechanism starts to move, the temporary position of the workpiece does have a workpiece, and the control system needs the manipulator to grab the workpiece for loading, and the manipulator starts to take the material, etc.
  通常采用顺序控制系统协调控制各专机的工序操作,前一台专机的工序完成后才进行下一专机的工序操作,当前一台专机尚未完成工艺操作时相邻的下一台专机就必须处于等待状态,直到工件经过最后一台专机后完成生产线上全部的工艺操作,这与手工装配流水线的过程非常相似。
  Usually, when the next special machine has finished the operation of the next special machine, it has to wait for the completion of the next process The process is very similar.
  为了最大限度地节省使用场地,有时自动化装配生产线还可以采用一种环形形式。由于平顶链输送线能够自由转弯,所以非常适合作为这种环形生产线的输送系统。
  In order to maximize the use of space, sometimes the automatic assembly line can also use a ring form. Because the flat top chain conveyor line can turn freely, it is very suitable as the conveying system of this kind of circular production line.