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视觉检测系统的概念和构成

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  视觉检测系统究竟是什么?我们对于视觉检测系统的应用大多时候只是停留在产品的外观缺陷检测方面,其实,视觉检测系统技术还包括使用工业相机去完成产品的识别、测量、定位等功能。
  What is visual inspection system? Most of our applications of visual inspection system only stay in the aspect of product appearance defect detection. In fact, the visual inspection system technology also includes the use of industrial cameras to complete product identification, measurement, positioning and other functions.
  一个典型的基于PC的工业机器视觉检测系统包括:光源、镜头、相机(包括CCD相机和COMS相机〉、采集卡、视觉处理系统五个部分组成。各个部分之间相互配合,最终完成其检测要求。
  A typical PC based industrial machine vision inspection system consists of five parts: light source, lens, camera (including CCD camera and COMS camera), acquisition card and visual processing system. Each part cooperates with each other to complete the testing requirements.
视觉检测系统的基本构成和概念
  光源是影响机器视觉检测系统输入的重要因素,光源直接影响图像质量和效果。针对每个特定的应用实例,要选择相应的光源及打光方式,以达到最佳的效果。打光方式可以分为明场照明和暗场照明。
  Light source is an important factor that affects the input of machine vision inspection system. Light source directly affects image quality and effect. For each specific application example, the corresponding light source and lighting mode should be selected to achieve the best effect. Lighting methods can be divided into light field lighting and dark field lighting.
  镜头的功能是将工件成像至摄像机的感光芯片上,镜头主要分为CCT镜头和远心镜头。
  The function of the lens is to image the workpiece onto the photosensitive chip of the camera. The lens is mainly divided into CCT lens and telecentric lens.
  摄像机是将光信号转换成电信号。早期的摄像机没有将模拟电信号转换成数字电信号的功能,所以称为模拟相机。模拟相机一般需要和图像采集卡配合使用,图像采集卡将模拟相机的电信号传换成数字信号,并传输至电脑。
  The camera converts optical signals into electrical signals. The early cameras did not have the function of converting analog electrical signals into digital electrical signals, so they were called analog cameras. Generally, the analog camera needs to be used together with the image acquisition card, which transfers the electrical signal of the analog camera into a digital signal and transmits it to the computer.
  而近年来,机器视觉检测系统的数字摄像机具有模拟转换功能,并遵从一定的通信协议,所以能够直接将采集到的图像信号传输至摄像机。这类摄像机称为数字相机,目前已成为机器视觉系统的主流摄像机了。
  In recent years, the digital camera of machine vision inspection system has the function of analog conversion and follows certain communication protocol, so it can directly transmit the collected image signal to the camera. This kind of camera is called digital camera, which has become the mainstream camera of machine vision system.
  视觉处理系统包含了硬件和软件两方面。根据硬件的不同,又分为智能相机和基于PC的视觉系统。软件的核心技术为图像处理算法,它包括图像的增强、图像分割、特征抽取、图像识别与理解等方面。
  Visual processing system includes hardware and software. According to the different hardware, it is divided into intelligent camera and PC based vision system. The core technology of the software is image processing algorithm, which includes image enhancement, image segmentation, feature extraction, image recognition and understanding.
  机器视觉检测系统通过图像处理与分析,从而进行产品质量的判断、尺寸测量等功能,并将结果信号传输到相应的硬件进行显示或执行。
  Through image processing and analysis, the machine vision inspection system can judge the product quality and size measurement, and transmit the result signal to the corresponding hardware for display or execution.